The Friedman Foundation for Educational Choice

Advancing Milton and Rose D. Friedman's Vision of School Choice for All Children

A Win-Win Solution: The Empirical Evidence on School Vouchers

Released: 3/23/2011

Author(s): Greg Forster, Ph.D.

This report collects the results of all available empirical studies using the best available scientific methods to measure how school vouchers affect academic outcomes for participants, and all available studies on how vouchers affect outcomes in public schools. Contrary to the widespread claim that vouchers do not benefit participants and hurt public schools, the empirical evidence consistently shows that vouchers improve outcomes for both participants and public schools. In addition to helping the participants by giving them more options, there are a variety of explanations for why vouchers might improve public schools as well. The most important is that competition from vouchers introduces healthy incentives for public schools to improve.

Key findings include:

  • Ten empirical studies have used random assignment, the gold standard of social science, to examine how vouchers affect participants. Nine studies find that vouchers improve student outcomes, six that all students benefit and three that some benefit and some are not affected. One study finds no visible impact. None of these studies finds a negative impact.
  • Nineteen empirical studies have examined how vouchers affect outcomes in public schools. Of these studies, 18 find that vouchers improved public schools and one finds no visible impact. No empirical studies find that vouchers harm public schools.
  • Every empirical study ever conducted in Milwaukee, Florida, Ohio, Texas, Maine and Vermont finds that voucher programs in those places improved public schools.
  • Only one study, conducted in Washington D.C., found no visible impact from vouchers. This is not surprising, since the D.C. voucher program is the only one designed to shield public schools from the impact of competition. Thus, the D.C. study does not detract from the research consensus in favor of a positive effect from voucher competition.
  • The benefits provided by existing voucher programs are sometimes large, but are usually more modest in size. This is not surprising since the programs themselves are modest — curtailed by strict limits on the students they can serve, the resources they provide, and the freedom to innovate. Only a universal voucher program could deliver the kind of dramatic improvement our public schools so desperately need.

News

3/29/2013 Hiner | Don't stand between a child and education
3/14/2013 Enlow | School Choice Offers Incentives to Improve Public Education
9/6/2012 Heartland Institute | The Best, Most Recent Voucher Research
6/27/2012 Wall Street Journal | Class Struggle
5/17/2012 Enlow | Students Deserve Education Options
2/22/2012 Education Week | What Research Says About School Choice
2/22/2012 Rutland Herald | The School Choice Plot
2/3/2012 Atlantic | Why Market Forces Are Good for Education
1/24/2012 City Journal | Golden Missed Opportunity
11/18/2011 America | Where Credit Is Due
10/18/2011 The Reporter | In Support of Corbett’s Educational Reform Package
9/3/2011 Enlow | Indiana School Vouchers Include the Choice of Private Education
8/27/2011 Enlow | Vouchers Help Create a Supporting System at Home, Aiding Students
8/10/2011 DiPerna | Parents Snatching Up Vouchers and K-12 Scholarships for New School Year
8/10/2011 DiPerna | Parents Snatching Up Vouchers and K-12 Scholarships for New School Year
6/28/2011 School Choice is a Win-Win Proposition
6/22/2011 Reed | Vouchers Improve Public Schools
5/16/2011 Reed | Indiana Lures, Keeps Residents With School Choice
5/3/2011 Wall Street Journal | The Evidence Is In: School Vouchers Work
4/21/2011 School Reform News | Study: Research on Voucher Programs Shows Extensive Benefits
4/19/2011 USA Today | Why School Vouchers are Worth a Shot
4/7/2011 Reed | Follow other states’ lead, support school choice in Oregon
3/28/2011 Reed | School Choice Should be Part of Education Reform
3/25/2011 Washington Post | Vouchers work, but so what?
3/23/2011 New Report Shows Vouchers Benefit Public and Private School Students

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