Members of the research team discuss the results from August’s general population poll.
Michael McShane: Hello, and welcome back to another edition of EdChoice Chats. I’m Mike McShane, Director of National Research at EdChoice, and you have happened upon another one of our monthly installments of our Tracker podcast. We here at EdChoice in partnership with Morning Consult, survey a nationally representative sample of Americans every month. We oversample school parents to get a nice sample of them as well. And every month we come on and talk about this. You can always check it out on our website, EdChoice.morningconsultintelligence.com, where you can download all of the cross tabs, which is all the different demographic information, the questionnaire that we use, and the beautiful PowerPoint presentation that our friends at Morning Consult make for us. We decided to mix things up a little bit this month, though. For those of you who have been listening month after months, we certainly appreciate you, but we were chatting with one another and we thought maybe the podcast had gotten a little stale.
We had kind of structured it the same way each month. We had kind of talked about some of the same things, we thought the format had gotten a little old. So we decided to mix it up a little bit. So instead of now of almost chronologically working our way through the presentation that you can all find on the website, we’re going to try and focus more on numbers that really jumped out at us and jumped out at us for different reasons. So we’ve actually prepared slightly differently this week, looking out for specific things, this will all become more clear here in a moment. So what I’ve decided to do is actually create a couple different categories, categories of numbers, things that stand out, I’ve tried to give them clever names. We’ll see if you all agree with me that the names are clever.
And then my colleagues, Colyn Ritter and John Kristof will offer their numbers. I will, as well, as the category fits. So Colyn and John, we’re going to start with our first new category and the category for numbers in the Tracker survey that we release, this groove is called the Cleopatra’s Pizza Hut most surprising number of the month. And so for those of you who may be wondering where we came up with that, this is designed to be the most surprising finding of this month’s survey. Now, what is the connection between Cleopatra, Pizza Hut and being surprised? Well, I’m going to tell you a fact that may in fact surprise you, that Cleopatra lived closer in time to the founding of the first Pizza Hut than of the building of the Pyramids. Were you surprised by that? Well, we’ve got some numbers that may surprise you as well. So Colyn, I’ll go to you first. What number did you have as the Cleopatra’s Pizza Hut most surprising number of the month?
Colyn Ritter: I love the name by the way, and thanks for the great introduction.
John Kristof: Pizza Hut, if you want to sponsor us, you’re welcome to.
Colyn Ritter: I know, I was thinking what would Cleopatra’s order be at Pizza Hut? But my most surprising number was actually a question that would fit under a future question that we’d have for death, taxes and whatever, just something that is usually pretty similar month after month, but for this month, it’s the funding question. So the question we ask is how much do you think is spent per year on each student in your state’s public schools? And they give an estimate in thousands and notoriously parents, non-parents, however we split it out, people are underestimating and maybe that’s because of their lack of knowledge, which is not a crazy thing to say, because not a lot of people know a lot about school funding, especially in public schools. But I think it’s because the actual state expenditures are very high, especially in average. So this month for the first time ever that I’ve seen in my time spent around the Tracker is I saw $10,000 for the first time.
And that was some refreshing to see, because we usually see three, four, 5,000. And that is just way off. The actual average expenditure is around a little less than 13,000. The minimum is 8,000. So they’re not even breaching the lowest actual expenditure, but this month non-parents and adults as a whole, adults said 6,000, but non-parents said 10,000 and to see 10,000 was so surprising and refreshing to see because we’re starting to get into the conversation of, okay, this is a good guess, keep guessing higher. And you’ll actually get really close. And actually on the flip side of that, school parents guess 3000. So they’re getting colder in their guesses, but I’ll take what I can get. 10,000 from non-parents was a great guess. And I’m happy to see it because we’re actually getting closer to the average expenditure and hopefully next month we’ll see something along the same lines. If I see non-parents go back to four or 5000, I’m going to be sad, but that was my most surprising number. I’m curious what your guys’ was.
Michael McShane: Colyn, I’m going to tell you my Cleopatra’s Pizza Hut most surprising number of the month came from that same slide. It’s actually very similar to what you found. My eyes were also drawn to the school spending numbers, and you mentioned it on there. I was surprised by the non-parents estimating $10,000. What surprised me though was how, as you mentioned, parents are actually getting further away. In the past, I think we had seen them guessing something like 5,000. I think that is basically what they came down on. But while the non-parents think that it’s 10,000 and the general population, if you put parents and non-parents together, think it’s 6,000, getting colder, parents only think that it’s 3,000.
So the number that most surprised me was how parents are so much worse than non-parents of knowing what the actual number is, right? They’re guessing less than a third of what the other folks were doing. So that’s the number that stood out to me, was the difference. You would think, at least for me, that parents would be closer to the correct number than non-parents are. That is not in fact the case. And that’s why it was my Cleopatra’s Pizza Hut most surprising number of the month. John, what surprised you?
John Kristof: Yeah, I’ll go in a bit of a different direction here, drawing attention to one of the new questions that we asked this month, which asked people what occupations that they think are undervalued or overvalued in the United States and being an education organization, we were interested particularly in how people think of K-12 teachers, especially given a lot of news and publicity around the teacher shortage and things right now. And sure enough, of all of the different occupations that we presented people with, K-12 teachers were most likely to be named undervalued. And maybe the idea that K-12 teachers might be undervalued in people’s minds that might not be surprising, but surprising to me was they were more likely to be named as undervalued compared to engineers or police officers or the military. And it wasn’t especially close either. There are some demographics breakdowns that might come into play.
One that you maybe might expect where Democrats are a little more likely to say that K-12 teachers are undervalued than Republicans. It’s actually a pretty big swing. I think it’s around 15 points for non-parents and around, I forget if it’s 18 or 19 points for parents, but still, it’s well over 60% of Republicans saying that K-12 teachers are undervalued. So I don’t know if that would surprise people or not.
But the other weird difference that I found is we’ve always asked people to identify whether they’re a member of a labor union or not. We don’t talk about that very much, because there’s usually not anything very interesting to say, but given the connection between K-12 teachers and teachers unions, I thought it was interesting that people who said that they were a member of a labor union were actually significantly less likely to say that K-12 teachers are undervalued. I don’t know what to make of that at all. I just thought it was interesting. That was the second most predictive thing, if you will, to be less likely to say that K-12 teachers are undervalued. I just think it’s an interesting question just because of the scale and degree to which people think we don’t pay enough attention to what K-12 teachers do. And that comes up a little bit more in other questions, but that was what my eyes were drawn to this month.
Michael McShane: I love it. Outstanding picks one and all. I like all of those. I think all of those were quite surprising. So now the next category is going in a slightly different direction. In fact, the exact opposite direction. It’s what I’m calling the death and taxes most predictable number. So if our last category was looking at the number that surprised us the most, what is the number from our polling that like death and taxes was basically a certainty. Something that did not surprise us at all. John, why don’t you go first on that one? What did not surprise you this month?
John Kristof: This feels like really low hanging fruit, but I guess that’s what this question is for. We resumed a longstanding question since COVID started, how comfortable are you with your child returning to in-person schooling right now? And once again, like solidly in the 80s as far as the share of parents who are comfortable with their child returning to school right now, not a lot has changed since the last time we asked this question a few months ago. This was one of our big indicators that we looked at to see how are people feeling about COVID, particularly in response to K-12 education, and the number has been pretty stable at low to mid-80s for quite a long time now. It probably will, barring some, heaven forbid, some new catastrophe, it’s just, I think, a pretty solid thing to count on at this point anytime we ask this question in the future.
Michael McShane: Well, this is now the second time we’ve revamped this podcast. This is the first episode, this is the second category, and now I will be going two for two in someone else having my answer.
John Kristof: Someone else had to have this one, right?
Michael McShane: That’s what I was going to say. That was mine as well. The COVID comfort for all of the reasons that John just said, I won’t reiterate them, but yes, I was not surprised by that either, I think we can basically take that one to the bank from here on out. Colyn, what was yours?
Colyn Ritter: So it was going to be the COVID question. I had changed it last second, because I was just going through the slides and I was like, “You know what? This is not too surprising.” And John touched on it in his Cleopatra number, but it was the, “Do the respondents feel the following professions are undervalued, overvalued, or appropriately valued?” It was teachers being undervalued, although the next question that’s paired with it is: how much do you respect the following profession? So K-12 teachers were the third most respected profession and the most undervalued profession, which is not very surprising. The breakdown of the professions was interesting, I will say. For example, business executives, only a third of people respect business executives. And then you look at school board members who, in terms of profession, are not teachers by any means, but they’re pretty close to teachers in terms of their workspace and they’re only respected by three in 10 respondents. And people also think they’re overvalued.
But teachers, I would like to talk to the 7% of people who said that teachers are overvalued. I don’t know if there’s some grudge they’re holding or something, or maybe they… I don’t know, the breakdown was very interesting. And I’m glad we asked this question. The new questions we have are always the first ones that I click on just to see what we’re starting off with. And I don’t know if we’ll continue to ask this question in the future, but I don’t believe that the number of people saying that teachers are overvalued will grow. Yeah, that was my death taxes and most predictable number is that people feel that teachers are very undervalued.
Michael McShane: There we go. Okay. Our third category is something I am calling the Frankenstein’s monster against the grain number. So where does that come from? Maybe this is the former English teacher in me, I have a degree in English from St. Louis University. Colyn, I know is a fellow Billiken. Something that has always driven me crazy is I always hear these references to someone made a Frankenstein out of that, referring to a monster or referring to something that’s been hastily cobbled together. Frankenstein was the inventor, the monster didn’t have a name, it was Frankenstein’s monster. The monster was not named Frankenstein yet everyone… this is something that I have to go against the grain every time I’m a pedant and correct people on this.
But in the spirit of that, and really just because what’s the point of participating in a podcast if you can’t exercise your own hobby horse? I really just created this category so I could say this very thing. But outside of that, the Frankenstein’s monster against the grain number is a number that goes against the conventional wisdom or the current narrative. So if the sort of general population thinks one thing, what is a number from our polling that goes in the opposite direction to that? Colyn, what was your Frankenstein’s monster against the grain number?
Colyn Ritter: Yeah, shout out Frankenstein or the Modern Prometheus, that was one of my favorite books that we read in school, and I do still hear people mess that up. As not a former English teacher that does not bother me as much but I can see where that would bother you.
My number is going back to a relatively new question we started asking after the tragedy in Uvalde, we asked it first in June, but it’s like one of our school safety questions. And the question was: how concerned are you about a violent intruder, like a mass shooter, entering your child’s school? And when we first asked the question in June, 42% of parents were concerned, total concern in terms of you can answer it either extremely or very concerned, and so the total concern is 42%. In July that number bumped up to 50%, so 1 in every 2 parents was concerned about the possibility of a violent intruder entering a school. And this month, in August, it dropped 7 points, back down to 43%, about where we started when we first asked the question.
Concern, we break it down between K-4 parents, so parents of younger children, grades 5 through 8, so middle school-aged children about, and then high school parents. And there was a drop in each of those groups. And I guess it was a little bit against the grain because I thought, as school is starting, August is about when most schools go back, end of August, and I mean, there was a drop, a 7% point drop of parents who were concerned. And I guess it makes sense if you look at it in the way that we’re getting further away from the tragedy in Texas, just in term of time, but school starting back up, maybe that discussion again… I mean, school safety is paramount, obviously. And you would think that with that tragedy happening at the end of the school year, that would be one of the big concerns to address at the beginning of the school year, and maybe we’ll see in the next month that it rises again and bounce back up and we have some alternating every other month going up and down.
But I was a bit surprised that it dropped a little bit, especially among elementary school parents. But yeah, I’m curious what your guys’ Frankenstein numbers were.
Michael McShane: Yeah. John, what was yours?
John Kristof: So the ed policy space has been talking a lot in the last week or so, we just got the new NAEP test scores for 2022, and they are really tragic, dramatic losses and standardized test score results of a lot of headlines talking about the pandemic undoing decades’ worth of growth in academic outcomes. And by some measures, that seems correct. So there’s been a lot of doom and gloom about how well our schools are doing right now. And if you ask parents in our survey, “How do you feel like your child or your children have progressed in the last school year?” So we specified 2021 or 2022, a lot of them think that their children are progressing very well academically. 46% of school parents specifically said, “Very well,” their children are progressing very well.
And for some context, we started mentioning this a couple podcasts ago because forever, when we’ve asked this question in the monthly tracker, the number here has more or less hovered around 25 or 30% of parents thinking that their children are progressing very well, 25% through the heart and then the immediate aftermath of the pandemic, rising kind of very slowly to, in December of 2021, to about 32%, and then it basically hovered around there for a year and a half.
And then June 2022, all of a sudden we saw a huge jump to 51% of parents thinking that their children are progressing very well academically. And I was like, “That has to be a fluke, surely it’s going to go down.” And it did go down a little bit but only 5 points over the course of 2 months. So still 46% of parents think that their children are progressing very well academically. And I think that’s a very interesting thing to look at, especially given other things, other surveys that we’ve done and other people have done. We know that test scores are generally not the thing that parents are looking at when they’re thinking about whether a school is a good fit for their child, but in a lot of ways, they’re one of the best tools that we have currently to measure academic growth and success. So a dramatic drop-off in students’ performance is definitely something to raise an eyebrow at and figure out, “Okay, where have we gone wrong?” Obviously there’s a lot of fingers that we can point there and those discussions are happening, but maybe it’s also important to keep in mind as well, I don’t know, what are parents, what are families, what are students experiences with learning as well? And if so many parents do think that their children are doing well academically, why is that?
What are they seeing that maybe the rest of us are not? Or are they just making some kind of comparison to, “Wow, this year went a lot better than the year before.” And so they’re just a lot more optimistic about how their children progressed could be a few different things, but I think it’s something that warrants another look and maybe another approach to the discussion around drops in test scores.
Michael McShane: Yeah. So mine was, John, when you started, I was like, is he just about to say the thing that I’m going to say, what are the odds of this? But finally, I get to be my own person here and say my own thing, similar to both of what John and Colyn were talking about, things that are in the news lately, it sort of has to be part of answering this question because it has to be something that a lot of people are thinking and talking about. Mine is about the teacher shortage.
A lot of people, teacher shortage, teacher shortage, teacher shortage, not to hijack the podcast, the story is a lot more complicated than people hearing about teacher shortage or people leaving teaching in droves. I recently wrote a Forbes column. You can go, just look up my Forbes column. I dug into people that are doing much more careful research on this and finding that the story is much more complicated that we’re having some big nationwide teacher shortage, because we actually aren’t.
So the question, so why do people think that? Why is that what it is? And we asked a great question this month. Have you heard about a shortage of teachers? And if so, where did you hear it from? And this actually helped, I think, understand where this narrative’s coming from because of the people who had heard about a teacher shortage happening, 61% of respondents have heard about teacher shortages from the national news, but only 20% have heard from their actual school or school district.
Like, well, you’re not hearing this from your actual school saying this just a fraction of you are actually hearing this. Most of it, you’re hearing national news stories. So you might be hearing about a school shortage and this isn’t to say that there aren’t some districts or some subject areas, whatever, where there shortages of teachers. But what you’re hearing is like, “Hey, there’s a district over there, that’s having a teacher shortage. And you’re assuming that your district has a teacher shortage.” So it turns out it’s not really happening.
Even amongst parents, it’s even less 41% of parents who have heard about a teacher shortage, heard about it from the national news, only 18% of it heard about it from their kids’ school or from their local school. So maybe if people listened more to their local educators, they would get a better understanding of what the teacher labor market actually looks like. But anyway, I digress, we have two more categories here. The second to last category, we’re calling it diving into demographics.
As we mentioned, if you go on our website, firstname.lastname@example.org, in addition to the great PowerPoints that are there, we also publish hundreds of pages of cross tabs. So on any of these individual questions, if you’re interested in the different demographic groups, how they responded regionally, politically, gender, racial and ethnic groups, any of those sort of things, we break it down, income. We have all of these different demographics that are out there. And to highlight that we want to do a diving into demographic section.
So is there one particular demographic finding? So pull out one of these questions and one of the individual demographics, their response to it that you found particularly interesting. I’m going to go ahead and go first so that no one can take mine on this one, but for me, and because of mine is a very short one support for education savings accounts. This is something that could probably be our death and taxes, predictable number because it’s pretty solid. One of the things that I found super interesting is the political breakdown between ESA support.
This could have also potentially gone into and against the grain, because I think we tend to hear that Republicans are more supportive of school choice than Democrats are. In actuality, for our education savings account question, yes, Republicans did support them more than Democrats, but it was by a grand total of one percentage point. 71% of Republicans supported and 70% of Democrats did. So that was my individual demographic or I guess technically two demographics that I looked into and found interesting. Colyn, what was your demographic finding that you found the most interesting?
Colyn Ritter: I did make note of the gen Z one, but I do have a backup because the gen Z demographic, they had a significant decrease of support in all of our school choice policies, which was actually really interesting. But the one I have comes from the question of we ask, what would you say are your top three issues on your mind when you cast your vote for federal office, state office and local office? And the biggest one, we had a 10% point increase of special education parents saying that they selected education issues. And that’s not surprising if you have a overall grasp of how this question goes.
We’ve been asking these questions since November of 2021. And special education parents, they have dramatic rises of falls. I can’t pinpoint exactly what it is. Maybe it’s, like I said, schools getting closer starting and summer’s over. So special education parents obviously have to be a bit more keen on the education landscape, especially locally, but they had a 10 point increase. Small town residents also had an 11 point increase, and they are the two groups that are at the top of the demographics of who most frequently selected education issues to be one of their top three issues on their mind. Yeah. What do you have, John?
John Kristof: So I want to bounce back a little bit to the question about school safety again, just because this was a question that months ago, I was like, “I’m going to be really curious to see where this is in several months because I predicted that concern about the possibility of a violent intruder entering your child’s school would probably dissipate with time, because that’s just our relationship with news and information.” And sure enough, eventually it did drop off from July to August, but just by a few percentage points, really.
Given everything, seven percentage points. So I was like, “Okay, this is really interesting for the first time I’m going to dive in and figure out what is the type of person we’re looking at who is especially likely to be concerned about these things right now.” And you see a few trends. I don’t know if they match people’s expectations or not, but for example, if you break down these results by race and ethnicity, white Americans are…
White non-Hispanics are the least likely to be concerned about a violent intruder entering their child’s school while black Americans are the most likely race or ethnicity to have these concerns with 67% of African American parents, specifically, I should mention, concerned about a violent intruder entering the child’s school. Thought that was interesting as you probably would expect given the way that the news has gotten politicized. Democrats are more likely to have this concern than Republicans.
Urban and rural areas are actually essentially equally likely to have this concern, which again, I don’t know if that matches people’s expectations are not because there’s a couple different factors going on there, but it’s a difference of only one percentage point. And the last one that I found interesting was regional differences. So we can group together states into loosely, the Northeast, the south, the west and the Midwest.
And easily, to a very good degree, a lot of the fear seems to be concentrated in Northeast states, specifically. Far and away, more people concerned about mass shootings in schools, in the Northeast compared to the south, the Midwest or the west and the Midwest was the least concerned by a decent bit. So all those were interesting.
Michael McShane: That’s supper interesting.
John Kristof: … solid takeaway, but I think it also is just a good signal too, of just, we have all of this information and there’s always more to a story than just kind of the top line results. Obviously, the top line results are really important, but there are more stories at play here and it’s all publicly available. Please go look at it.
Michael McShane: Awesome. That’s great. Okay. One more. We are going to close with a category that I’m calling one point 21 gigawatts, for those of you back to the future fans, which I really think you shouldn’t be gigawatts. I don’t know. Anyway, I’m doing my best [inaudible 00:26:58].
John Kristof: I’m not going to say anything.
Michael McShane: That’s right. Listen, Christopher Lloyd nailed that character so far be it for me to complain about his portrayal of Doc Brown and his pronunciation. But anyway, this is basically a time travel question, right? This is a Back to the Future reference. What is a number that’s in our polling today that maybe isn’t as important today, isn’t as salient today, but will matter in the future? We think maybe portends something in the future that will be interesting to folks. John, what was your 1.21 gigawatts time travel question? Or time travel data point?
John Kristof: I’m trying to pull up the exact number here, again, real quick. But we’ve asked a question for a long time about what parents’ ideal school week would be. And for a long time, we specified like, “Hey, to clarify, after the pandemic’s over, what would your ideal school week look like? Specifically, how many days of learning do you want to take place outside the home, probably at school versus would you want any days of learning taking place inside the home long term post pandemic.” And a majority, actually, of people for a very long time have indicated that their ideal week would involve at least one day of learning spent at home, with a really decent amount saying between two and four days spent at home would be their ideal. One big shift that we saw this month was among private schools parents specifically. There was a 22 point jump in private school parents saying that their ideal week would involve schooling to take place completely outside the home.
Now, that’s still only 58%, which still means that 42% of private school parents want at least one day of learning at home. But regardless, that’s a big shift in something that we haven’t really seen in this question before. But I would predict that, over the course of this school year, you’re going to see that number start to retreat closer to numbers that we’ve seen more long term since we’ve been asking this question over years. I think parents have just paid tuition bills maybe for their children’s private education, or the school year is just starting. And we’ve seen a history of people being maybe a little more optimistic about, at least in their specific case, their child’s education going into a school year.
We saw it regarding COVID and other things in previous years. So, there may be more interest in the school option that they have chosen and been presented to them. And I would predict over the course of the school year, as life gets complicated, and we begin thinking about wouldn’t it be nicer if we had these different options available to us, I think will go back to a majority of private school parents wanting at least one day of schooling occurring at home as it has been for a very long time. And we’ll see that trend continue for traditional district school parents, as well. Just they still currently already have a majority.
Michael McShane: For sure. On a completely unrelated note, my book, Hybrid Homeschooling Guide to the Future of Education, is available at your local online book retailer. If you are interested in these questions around hybrid schedules, it might be something we’re checking out.
John Kristof: Always be closing.
Michael McShane: Thank you. Yes, John, your check’s in the mail for the great pub there. Colyn, your thoughts. What is your number that you think will matter in the future?
Colyn Ritter: So, I’m going to stick with the same question I just talked about, Americans prioritization of education issues at a local, state and federal level. Obviously, as we get closer to election season, I mean, we’re only two tracker podcasts away, September and October, away from our November one where I’m sure this will be taking center stage. My thing is that education’s always going to be relatively prioritized at a local level. It’s tied for third behind economic issues, and only 1 percentage point behind healthcare issues. So, it’s being prioritized relatively heavily at the local level. But I’m curious to see, and I would wager to say, that I think you’ll see a bump at the state and federal level. There was a really good article, I’m going to give a plug to the National Alliance for Public Charter Schools, asking, Is the education voter the new swing voter?” And it’s a worthy question.
It made me think a lot about how education has been. And I also think about the Virginia Governor Glenn Youngkin’s election last year and that was… He put education so high on his prioritization when it came to his platform and his campaign, and parents really believed in that. And I think that’s a big reason why he won. But I’m curious how it’ll go at state and federal levels. Because I mean, looking at the federal level of the issues we listed, it is last. It’s behind things like security issues, energy issues, seniors issues, and that’s not surprising, right? Federally, there are a lot bigger issues than education, depending on who you ask. State, it’s a little bit higher up on the list. It’s fourth behind women’s healthcare and economic issues.
So, I think in the next couple months, we’ll see a gradual climb. And then, I think as October hits and, obviously, November, I think it could rival, or it could start to close the gap between economic issues, which is heavily ahead. There’s a wide gap between economic issues and the rest at every level, local, state, and federal. And that makes sense. If you watch any sort of news or hear anything, gas prices, inflation, it makes sense why economic issues are up there. But I think we’ll see education issues rise up those state and federal charts.
Michael McShane: I will close out with the number that stood out to me. Similarly to, we asked a question, I think, new this month about have people heard about teacher shortages? The other question we asked, have you heard about public schools losing students? This has been something that has been verified in lots of places that enrollment is shrinking for a variety of reasons. A lot of folks are talking about the pandemic’s results and students being out of school. Part of it are just demographic trends that where we had a baby boom. And on the other end of baby booms, you see baby busts. And so, for lots of reasons we can be relatively confident that there will be fewer public school students in the future. And so, right now, about 40% of the general population and 47% of parents are aware of this fact.
I’m highlighting this because it’s a huge deal. We’re already seeing the first echoes of this in just pandemic related drops in enrollment. Schools are very, very bad at managing declining enrollment. It affects funding, it affects staffing, it affects building usage, buses, all sorts of things. And a lot of the systems and structures that we built in place assume, at worst, steady and generally growing student populations. And if you’re systems, and whether this is teacher pensions, whether that’s, I mean, whatever, all of these things that are related to that. Declining student enrollment is really bad for all of those things. And so, while 40% of the population knows about it now, and 47% of parents do, a lot more will probably know about it in the future. And the actual population of students in American schools is really going to shape education policy going forward.
We’re just starting to see it now. So, I think a lot more folks will hear about it. But I think that’s all the time we have today. Colyn, John, thank you so much for participating in this, for jumping in with both feet. We switched up this structure here, and I think you both played a blinder. So, thank you both very much. Everyone, it was great chatting with all of you. Again, you can go to our website at edchoice.morningconsultintelligence.com to get all of this information. And I look forward to chatting with all of you again on another edition of EdChoice Chats.