Empirical Research Literature on the Effects of School Choice
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School Choice

Empirical Research Literature on the Effects of School Choice

Empirical Research Literature on the Effects of School Choice

Reviews of School Choice Research
Academic Outcomes of Participants
Academic Outcomes of Public Schools
Racial Segregation/Integration
Fiscal Impact on Taxpayers and Public Schools
Civic Values and Practices
Parental Satisfaction

 

updated: April 9, 2019

Reviews of School Choice Research

*Studies included in these reviews are empirical by research design and observing the outcomes of publicly or privately funded school choice programs in K–12 education, and research reviews are systematically conducted and establish clear inclusion criteria.

 

Corey A. DeAngelis (2017). Do Self-Interested Schooling Selections Improve Society? A Review of the Evidence. Journal of School Choice, 11(4), pp. 546–558. https://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15582159.2017.1395615

Leesa M. Foreman (2017). Educational Attainment Effects of Public and Private School Choice. Journal of School Choice, 11(4), pp. 642–654. https://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15582159.2017.1395619

Dennis Epple, Richard E. Romano, and Miguel Urquiola (2017). School Vouchers: A Survey of the Economics Literature. Journal of Economic Literature, 55(2), 441–92. http://dx.doi.org/10.1257/jel.20150679

Michael R. Ford and Fredrik O. Andersson (2017). Taking Stock and Moving Forward: Lessons from Two Plus Decades on the Milwaukee Parental Choice Program. Journal of School Choice. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15582159.2017.1350085

Evan Rhinesmith (2017). A Review of the Research on Parent Satisfaction in Private School Choice Programs. Journal of School Choice, 11(4), pp. 585–603. https://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15582159.2017.1395639

Elise Swanson (2017). Can We Have It All? A Review of the Impacts of School Choice on Racial Integration. Journal of School Choice, 11(4), p. 507–526. https://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15582159.2017.1395644

Julianne Bozzo (2016). School Vouchers: A Vehicle to Induce Greater Competition Among Public Schools. Hatfield Graduate Journal of Public Affairs, 2(1-4). http://dx.doi.org/10.15760/hgjpa.2017-2.4

Anna J. Egalite and Patrick J. Wolf (2016). A Review of the Empirical Research on Private School Choice. Peabody Journal of Education, 91(4), 441–454. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0161956X.2016.1207436

Greg Forster (2016). A Win-Win Solution: The Empirical Evidence on School Choice (4th ed.). Friedman Foundation for Educational Choice. Retrieved from EdChoice website: http://www.edchoice.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/05/A-Win-Win-Solution-The-Empirical-Evidence-on-School-Choice.pdf

Danish Shakeel, Kaitlin P. Anderson, and Patrick J. Wolf (2016). The Participant Effects of Private School Vouchers across the Globe: A Meta-Analytic and Systematic Review (EDRE Working Paper 2016-07). https://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.2777633. For more information, see: University of Arkansas. Overall TOT Impacts by Year – US Voucher RCTs: Math [Image file], Accessed January 3, 2019. Retrieved from https://www.uaedreform.org/downloads/2017/04/u-s-voucher-experiments-math-impacts-by-year.png; University of Arkansas. Overall TOT Impacts by Year – US Voucher RCTs: Reading [Image file]. Accessed January 3, 2019. Retrieved from https://www.uaedreform.org/downloads/2017/04/u-s-voucher-experiments-reading-impacts-by-year.png

Patrick J. Wolf and Anna J. Egalite (2016). Pursuing Innovation: How Can Educational Choice Transform K-12 Education in the U.S.?. Retrieved from EdChoice website: http://www.edchoice.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/05/2016-4-Pursuing-Innovation-WEB-1.pdf

Anna J. Egalite (2013). Measuring Competitive Effects from School Voucher Programs: A Systematic Review. Journal of School Choice, 7(4), 443–464. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15582159.2013.837759

Patrick J. Wolf (2008). School Voucher Programs: What the Research Says About Parental School Choice. Brigham Young University Law Review, 2(9), 415–446.

Academic Outcomes of Participants

*When considering studies on the effects of school choice programs on the academic outcomes of participating students, we only cite studies that use a random assignment methodology—considered the gold standard in the social sciences. You can learn more about the design and use of randomized control trials in this helpful blog post.

 

Atila Abdulkadiroglu, Parag A. Pathak, and Christopher R. Walters (2018). Free to Choose: Can School Choice Reduce Student Achievement? American Economic Journal: Applied Economics, 10(1), pp. 175–206. https://dx.doi.org/10.1257/app.20160634

Mark Dynarski, Ning Rui, Ann Webber, and Babette Gutmann (2018). Evaluation of the DC Opportunity Scholarship Program: Impacts Two Years After Students Applied (NCEE 2018-4010). Retrieved from Institute of Education Sciences website: https://ies.ed.gov/ncee/pubs/20184010/pdf/20184010.pdf

Jonathan N. Mills and Patrick J. Wolf (2017). The Effects of the Louisiana Scholarship Program on Student Achievement After Three Years (Louisiana Scholarship Program Evaluation Report 7). Retrieved from https://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.2738805

Marianne Bitler, Thurston Domina, Emily Penner, and Hilary Hoynes (2015). Distributional Analysis in Educational Evaluation: A Case Study from the New York City Voucher Program. Journal of Research on Educational Effectiveness, 8(3), pp. 419–450. https://dx.doi.org/10.1080/19345747.2014.921259

Patrick J. Wolf, Brian Kisida, Babette Gutmann, Michael Puma, Nada Eissa, and Lou Rizo (2013). School Vouchers and Student Outcomes: Experimental Evidence from Washington, D.C. Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, 32(2), pp. 246–270. https://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pam.21691

Hui Jin, John Barnard, and Donald Rubin (2010). A Modified General Location Model for Noncompliance with Missing Data: Revisiting the New York City School Choice Scholarship Program using Principal Stratification. Journal of Educational and Behavioral Statistics, 35(2), pp. 154–173. https://dx.doi.org/10.3102/1076998609346968

Joshua Cowen (2008). School Choice as a Latent Variable: Estimating the “Complier Average Causal Effect” of Vouchers in Charlotte. Policy Studies Journal, 36(2), pp. 301–315. https://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1541-0072.2008.00268.x

Eric Bettinger and Robert Slonim (2006). Using Experimental Economics to Measure the Effects of a Natural Educational Experiment on Altruism. Journal of Public Economics, 90(8–9), pp. 1625–1648. https://dx.doi.org/ 10.1016/j.jpubeco.2005.10.006

Alan Krueger and Pei Zhu (2004). Another Look at the New York City School Voucher Experiment. American Behavioral Scientist, 47(5), pp. 658–698. https://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0002764203260152

John Barnard, Constantine Frangakis, Jennifer Hill, and Donald Rubin (2003). Principal Stratification Approach to Broken Randomized Experiments: A Case Study of School Choice Vouchers in New York City. Journal of the American Statistical Association, 98(462), pp. 310–326. https://dx.doi.org/10.1198/016214503000071

William G. Howell, Patrick J. Wolf, David E. Campbell, and Paul E. Peterson (2002). School Vouchers and Academic Performance: Results from Three Randomized Field Trials. Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, 21(2), pp. 191–217. https://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pam.10023

Jay P. Greene (2001). Vouchers in Charlotte. Education Matters, 1(2), pp. 55–60. Retrieved from Education Next website: http://educationnext.org/files/ednext20012_46b.pdf

Jay P. Greene, Paul Peterson, and Jiangtao Du (1999). Effectiveness of School Choice: The Milwaukee Experiment. Education and Urban Society, 31(2), pp. 190–213. https://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0013124599031002005

Cecilia E. Rouse (1998). Private School Vouchers and Student Achievement: An Evaluation of the Milwaukee Parental Choice Program. Quarterly Journal of Economics, 113(2), pp. 553–602. https://dx.doi.org/10.1162/003355398555685

 

Program Participant Attainment

Matthew M. Chingos, Tomas Monarrez, and Daniel Kuehn (2019). The Effects of the Florida Tax Credit Scholarship Program on College Enrollment and Graduation: An Update. Retrieved from Urban Institute website: https://www.urban.org/sites/default/files/publication/99728/the_effects_of_the_florida_tax credit_scholarship_program_on_college_enrollment_and_graduation_2.pdf

Matthew M. Chingos (2018). The Effect of the DC School Voucher Program on College Enrollment. Retrieved from Urban Institute website: https://www.urban.org/sites/default/files/publication/96686/the_effect_of_the_dc_school_voucher_program_on_college_enrollment_1.pdf 

Heidi H. Erickson, Jonathan N. Mills, and Patrick J. Wolf (2018, March). The Preliminary Effects of the Louisiana Scholarship Program on College Entrance. Paper presented at the 43rd Annual Conference of the Association for Education Finance and Policy, Portland, OR. Retrieved from https://aefpweb.org/sites/default/files/webform/AEFP_preliminaryLSPattainment.pdf

Patrick J. Wolf, John F. Witte, and Brian Kisida (2018). Do Voucher Students Attain Higher Levels of Education? Extended Evidence from the Milwaukee Parental Choice Program. Retrieved from Urban Institute website: https://www.urban.org/sites/default/files/publication/96721/do_voucher_students _attain_higher_levels_of_education_0.pdf

Matthew M. Chingos and Paul E. Peterson (2015). Experimentally Estimated Impacts of School Vouchers on College Enrollment and Degree Attainment. Journal of Public Economics, 122, pp. 1–12. https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpubeco.2014.11.013

Patrick J. Wolf, Brian Kisida, Babette Gutmann, Michael Puma, Nada Eissa, and Lou Rizo (2013). School Vouchers and Student Outcomes: Experimental Evidence from Washington, DC. Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, 32(2), pp. 246–270. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pam.21691

 

Parent Satisfaction

Legislative Audit Bureau (2017). Special Needs Scholarship Program (Report 18-6). Retrieved from Wisconsin State Legislature website: https://legis.wisconsin.gov/lab/media/2753/18-6full.pdf

Department of Revenue Administration (2018). Scholarship Organization Report: Giving and Going Alliance. Retrieved from https://www.revenue.nh.gov/quick-links/documents/givingandgoingalliance.PDF;  Department of Revenue Administration (2018). Scholarship Organization Report: Children’s Scholarship Fund. Retrieved from https://www.revenue.nh.gov/quick-links/documents/childrens scholarshipfund.PDF

Andrew D. Catt and Evan Rhinesmith (2017). Why Indiana Parents Choose: A Cross-Sector Survey of Parents’ Views in a Robust School Choice Environment. Retrieved from EdChoice website: https://www.edchoice.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/09/Why-Indiana-Parents-Choose-1.pdf

Anna J. Egalite, Ashley Gray, and Trip Stallings (2017). Parent Perspectives: Applicants to North Carolina’s Opportunity Scholarship Program Share Their Experiences (OS Evaluation Report 2). Retrieved from North Carolina State University website: https://ced.ncsu.edu/elphd/wp-content/uploads/sites/2/2017/07/Parent-Perspectives.pdf

Andrew D. Catt and Evan Rhinesmith (2016). Why Parents Choose: A Survey of Private School and School Choice Parents in Indiana. Retrieved from EdChoice website: https://www.edchoice.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/03/Why-Parents-Choose-A-Survey-of-Private-School-and-School-Choice-Parents-in-Indiana-by-Andrew-D.-Catt-and-Evan-Rhinesmith.pdf

Brett Kittredge (2016). The Special Needs ESA: What Families Enrolled in the Program Are Saying After Year One. Retrieved from Empower Mississippi website: http://empowerms.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/12/ESA-Report-final.pdf

Paul DiPerna (2015). Why Indiana Voucher Parents Choose Private Schools. Retrieved from EdChoice website: http://www.edchoice.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/07/Indiana-Survey.pdf

Brian Kisida and Patrick Wolf (2015). Customer Satisfaction and Educational Outcomes: Experimental Impacts of the Market-Based Delivery of Public Education. International Public Management Journal, 18(2), pp. 265–285. https://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10967494.2014.996629

Jonathan Butcher and Jason Bedrick (2013). Schooling Satisfaction: Arizona Parents’ Opinions on Using Education Savings Accounts. Retrieved from EdChoice website: https://www.edchoice.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/10/SCHOOLING-SATISFACTION-Arizona-Parents-Opinions-on-Using-Education-Savings-Accounts-NEW.pdf

James P. Kelly, III, and Benjamin Scafidi (2013). More Than Scores: An Analysis of Why and How Parents Choose Private Schools. Retrieved from EdChoice website: http://www.edchoice.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/07/More-Than-Scores.pdf

John F. Witte, Patrick J. Wolf, Joshua M. Cowen, David J. Fleming, and Juanita Lucas-McLean (2008). MPCP Longitudinal Educational Growth Study: Baseline Report (SCDP Milwaukee Evaluation Report 5). Retrieved from University of Arkansas Department of Education Reform website: http://www.uaedreform.org/downloads/2008/02/report-5-mpcp-longitudinal-educational-growth-study-baseline-report.pdf

Jay P. Greene and Greg Forster (2003). Vouchers for Special Education Students: An Evaluation of Florida’s McKay Scholarship Program (Civic Report 38). Retrieved from Manhattan Institute website: https://media4.manhattan-institute.org/pdf/cr_38.pdf

William G. Howell and Paul E. Peterson (2002). The Education Gap: Vouchers and Urban Schools. Retrieved from https://www.jstor.org/stable/10.7864/j.ctt128086

Jay P. Greene (2001). Vouchers in Charlotte. Education Matters, 1(2), pp. 55–60. Retrieved from Education Next website: https://www.educationnext.org/files/ednext20012_46b.pdf

Paul E. Peterson and David E. Campbell (2001). An Evaluation of the Children’s Scholarship Fund (PEPG 01-01). Retrieved from Harvard University website: https://sites.hks.harvard.edu/pepg/PDF/Papers/CSF%20Report%202001.pdf

Paul E. Peterson, David E. Campbell, and Martin R. West (2001). An Evaluation of the BASIC Fund Scholarship Program in the San Francisco Bay Area, California (PEPG 01-01). Retrieved from Harvard University website: https://sites.hks.harvard.edu/pepg/PDF/Papers/BasicReport.PDF

John F. Witte (2000). The Market Approach to Education: An Analysis of America’s First Voucher Program. Retrieved from https://www.jstor.org/stable/j.ctt7rqnw

Kim K. Metcalf (1999). Evaluation of the Cleveland Scholarship and Tutoring Grant Program: 1996-1999. Retrieved from https://cdm16007.contentdm.oclc.org/digital/collection/p267401ccp2/id/1948

Paul E. Peterson, William G. Howell, and Jay P. Greene (1999). An Evaluation of the Cleveland Voucher Program After Two Years. Retrieved from Harvard University website: https://sites.hks.harvard.edu/pepg/PDF/Papers/clev2ex.pdf

Paul E. Peterson, David Myers, and William G. Howell (1999). An Evaluation of the Horizon Scholarship Program in the Edgewood Independent School district, San Antonio, Texas: The First Year. Retrieved from Harvard University website: https://sites.hks.harvard.edu/pepg/PDF/Papers/edge99.pdf

Jay P. Greene, William G. Howell, and Paul E. Peterson (1998). Lessons from the Cleveland Scholarship Program. In Paul E. Peterson and Bryan C. Hassel (Eds.), Learning from School Choice (pp. 357–392). Retrieved from: https://cpb-usw2.wpmucdn.com/voices.uchicago.edu/dist/5/539/files/2017/05/Lessons -10vatg9.pdfv

David J. Weinschrott and Sally B. Kilgore (1998). Evidence from the Indianapolis Voucher Program. In Paul E. Peterson and Bryan C. Hassel (Eds.), Learning from School Choice (pp. 307–334), Retrieved from https://books.google.com/books?id=138qI-WoYMYC&pg=PA307

 

Public School Students’ Test Scores

Anna J. Egalite (2016). The Competitive Effects of the Louisiana Scholarship Program on Public School Performance (Louisiana Scholarship Program Evaluation Report 4). https://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.2739783

David Figlio and Krzysztof Karbownik (2016). Evaluation of Ohio’s EdChoice Scholarship Program: Selection, Competition, and Performance Effects, retrieved from Thomas B. Fordham Institute website: https://fordhaminstitute.org/sites/default/files/publication/pdfs/FORDHAM-Ed-Choice-Evaluation-Report_online-edition.pdf

Nathan L. Gray, John D. Merrifield, and Kerry A. Adzima (2016). A Private Universal Voucher Program’s Effects on Traditional Public Schools. Journal of Economics and Finance, 40(2), pp. 319–344. https://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12197-014-9309-z

Daniel H. Bowen and Julie R. Trivitt (2014). Stigma Without Sanctions: The (Lack of) Impact of Private School Vouchers on Student Achievement. education policy analysis archives, 22(87). https://dx.doi.org/10.14507/epaa.v22n87.2014

David Figlio and Cassandra M.D. Hart (2014). Competitive Effects of Means-Tested School Vouchers. American Economic Journal: Applied Economics, 6(1), pp. 133–156. https://dx.doi.org/10.1257/app. 6.1.133

Anna Jacob and Kate Dougherty (2014). “The Competitive Effect of the Indiana Choice Scholarship Program on Student Achievement in Indiana Public Schools.” In Anna Jacob, Means-Tested Vouchers: Impacts on Public School Performance and Racial Stratification (Doctoral dissertation), pp. 60–88. Retrieved from ProQuest (1561345849)

Rajashri Chakrabarti (2013). Vouchers, Public School Response, and the Role of Incentives: Evidence from Florida. Economic  Inquiry, 51(1), pp. 500–526. https://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1465-7295.2012.00455.x

Cecilia E. Rouse, Jane Hannaway, Dan Goldhaber, and David Figlio (2013). Feeling the Florida Heat? How Low-Performing Schools Respond to Voucher and Accountability Pressure. American Economic Journal: Economic Policy, 5(2), pp. 251–281. https://dx.doi.org/10.1257/pol.5.2.251

Matthew Carr (2011). The Impact of Ohio’s EdChoice on Traditional Public School Performance. Cato Journal, 31(2), pp. 257–284. Retrieved from Cato Institute website: http://object.cato.org/sites/cato.org/files/serials/files/cato-journal/2011/5/cj31n2-5.pdf

Marcus A. Winters and Jay P. Greene (2011). Public School Response to Special Education Vouchers: The Impact of Florida’s McKay Scholarship Program on Disability Diagnosis and Student Achievement in Public Schools. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 33(2), pp. 138–158. https://dx.doi.org/10.3102/0162373711404220

Nicholas S. Mader (2010). School Choice, Competition and Academic Quality: Essays on the Milwaukee Parental Choice Program (Doctoral dissertation). Retrieved from ProQuest (3424049)

Jay P. Greene and Ryan H. Marsh (2009). The Effect of Milwaukee’s Parental Choice Program on Student Achievement in Milwaukee Public Schools (SCDP Comprehensive Longitudinal Evaluation of the Milwaukee Parental Choice Program Report 11). Retrieved from University of Arkansas Department of Education Reform website: http://www.uaedreform.org/downloads/2009/03/report-11-the-effect-of-milwaukees-parental-choice-program-on-student-achievement-in-milwaukee-public-schools.pdf

Rajashri Chakrabarti (2008). Can Increasing Private School Participation and Monetary Loss in a Voucher Program Affect Public School Performance? Evidence from Milwaukee, Journal of Public Economics, 92(5–6), pp. 1371–1393. https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpubeco.2007.06.009

Greg Forster (2008). Lost Opportunity: An Empirical Analysis of How Vouchers Affected Florida Public Schools. School Choice Issues in the State. Retrieved from EdChoice website: http://www.edchoice.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/09/Lost-Opportunity-How-Vouchers-Affected-Florida-Public-Schools.pdf

Greg Forster (2008). Promising Start: An Empirical Analysis of How EdChoice Vouchers Affect Ohio Public Schools. School Choice Issues in the State. Retrieved from EdChoice website: http://www.edchoice.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/09/Promising-Start-How-EdChoice-Vouchers-Affect-Ohio-Public-Schools.pdf

Martin Carnoy, Frank Adamson, Amita Chudgar, Thomas F. Luschei, and John F. Witte (2007). Vouchers and Public School Performance: A Case Study of the Milwaukee Parental Choice Program. Retrieved from Economic Policy Institute website: https://www.epi.org/publication/book_vouchers

David N. Figlio and Cecilia E. Rouse (2006). Do Accountability and Voucher Threats Improve Low-Performing Schools? Journal of Public Economics, 90(1–2), pp. 239–255. https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpubeco.2005.08.005

Jay P. Greene and Marcus A. Winters (2007). An Evaluation of the Effect of DC’s Voucher Program on Public School Achievement and Racial Integration After One Year. Journal of Catholic Education, 11(1), pp. 83–101. http://dx.doi.org/10.15365/joce.1101072013

Martin R. West and Paul E. Peterson (2006). The Efficacy of Choice Threats within School Accountability Systems: Results from Legislatively Induced Experiments. Economic Journal, 116(510), pp. C46–C62. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-0297.2006.01075.x

Jay P. Greene and Marcus A. Winters (2004). Competition Passes the Test. Education Next, 4(3), pp. 66–71. Retrieved from https://www.educationnext.org/files/ednext20043_66.pdf

Jay P. Greene and Greg Forster (2002). Rising to the Challenge: The Effect of School Choice on Public Schools in Milwaukee and San Antonio (Civic Bulletin 27). Retrieved from Manhattan Institute website: http://www.manhattan-institute.org/pdf/cb_27.pdf

Christopher Hammons (2002), The Effects of Town Tuitioning in Vermont and Maine. School Choice Issues in Depth. Retrieved from EdChoice website: https://www.edchoice.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/03/The-Effects-of-Town-Tuitioning-in-Vermont-and-Maine.pdf

Caroline M. Hoxby (2002). How School Choice Affects the Achievement of Public School Students. In Paul T. Hill (Ed.), Choice with Equity (pp. 141–78). Retrieved from https://books.google.com/books?id=IeUk3myQu-oC&lpg=PP1&pg=PA141

Jay P. Greene (2001). An Evaluation of the Florida A-Plus Accountability and School Choice Program. Retrieved from Manhattan Institute website: http://www.manhattan-institute.org/pdf/cr_aplus.pdf

 

Civic Values and Practices

Corey A. DeAngelis and Patrick J. Wolf (2019). Private School Choice and Character: Evidence from Milwaukee (EDRE Working Paper 2019-03). https://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.3335162

Corey A. DeAngelis and Patrick J. Wolf (2018). Will Democracy Endure Private School Choice? The Effect of the Milwaukee Parental Choice Program on Adult Voting Behavior. https://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.3177517

Deven Carlson, Matthew M. Chingos, and David E. Campbell (2017). The Effect of Private School Vouchers on Political Participation. Journal of Research on Educational Effectiveness, 10(1), pp. 545–569. https://dx.doi.org/10.1080/19345747.2016.1256458

Jonathan N. Mills, Albert Cheng, Collin E. Hitt, Patrick J. Wolf, and Jay P. Greene (2016). Measures of Student Non-Cognitive Skills and Political Tolerance After Two Years of the Louisiana Scholarship Program (Louisiana Scholarship Program Evaluation Report 2). https://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.2738782

David J. Fleming (2014). Learning from Schools: School Choice, Political Learning, and Policy Feedback. Policy Studies Journal, 42(1), pp.55–78. https://dx.doi.org/10.1111/psj.12042

David J. Fleming, William Mitchell, and Michal McNally (2014). Can Markets Make Citizens? School Vouchers, Political Tolerance, and Civic Engagement. Journal of School Choice, 8(2), pp. 213–236. https://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15582159.2014.905397

David E. Campbell (2008). The Civic Side of School Choice: An Empirical Analysis of Civic Education in Public and Private Schools. Brigham Young University Law Review, 2008(2), pp. 487–523. Retrieved from https://digitalcommons.law.byu.edu/lawreview/vol2008/iss2/11

Eric Bettinger and Robert Slonim (2006). Using Experimental Economics to Measure the Effects of a Natural Educational Experiment on Altruism. Journal of Public Economics, 90(8–9), pp. 1625–1648. https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpubeco.2005.10.006

William G. Howell and Paul E. Peterson (2006). The Education Gap: Vouchers and Urban Schools, revised edition. Retrieved from https://books.google.com/books?id=lAzmJs8i-rUC

Paul E. Peterson and David E. Campbell (2001).  An Evaluation of the Children’s Scholarship Fund (PEPG 01-03). Retrieved from Harvard  University website: https://sites.hks.harvard.edu/pepg/PDF/Papers/CSF%20Report%202001.pdf

Patrick J. Wolf, Paul E. Peterson, and Martin R. West (2001). Results of a School Voucher Experiment: The Case of Washington, D.C. after Two Years (PEPG 01–05). Retrieved from https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED457272.pdf

Racial/Ethnic Integration

Anna J. Egalite, Jonathan N. Mills, and Patrick J. Wolf (2017). The Impact of Targeted School Vouchers on Racial Stratification in Louisiana Schools. Education and Urban Society, 49(3), pp. 271–296. https://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0013124516643760

Jay P. Greene, Jonathan N. Mills, and Stuart Buck (2010). The Milwaukee Parental Choice Program’s Effect on School Integration (School Choice Demonstration Project Report 20). Retrieved from University of Arkansas Department of Education Reform website: http://www.uaedreform.org/downloads/2010/04/report-20-the-milwaukee-parental-choice-programs-effect-on-school-integration.pdf

Greg Forster (2006). Segregation Levels in Cleveland Public Schools and the Cleveland Voucher Program. School Choice Issues in the State. Retrieved from EdChoice website: http://www.edchoice.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/09/Segregation-Levels-in-Cleveland-Public-Schools-and-the-Cleveland-Voucher-Program.pdf

Jay P. Greene and Marcus A. Winters (2007). An Evaluation of the Effect of DC’s Voucher Program on Public School Achievement and Racial Integration After One Year. Journal of Catholic Education, 11(1), pp. 83–101. http://dx.doi.org/10.15365/joce.1101072013

Greg Forster (2006). Segregation Levels in Milwaukee Public Schools and the Milwaukee Voucher Program. School Choice Issues in the State. Retrieved from EdChoice website: http://www.edchoice.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/09/Segregation-Levels-in-Milwaukee-Public-Schools-and-the-Milwaukee-Voucher-Program.pdf

Howard L. Fuller and George A. Mitchell (2000). The Impact of School Choice on Integration in Milwaukee Private Schools. Current Education Issues 2000-02. Retrieved from https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED443939.pdf

Jay P. Greene (1999). Choice and Community: The Racial, Economic and Religious Context of Parental Choice in Cleveland. Retrieved from https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED441928.pdf

 

Fiscal Effects

Jacob Dearmon and Russell Evans (2018), Fiscal Impact Analysis of the Oklahoma Equal Opportunity Scholarship Tax Credit, retrieved from Oklahoma City University website: https://www.okcu.edu/uploads/business/docs/Scholarship-Tuition-Tax-Credit-FY-2017-Fiscal-Impact-Report.pdf

Martin F. Lueken (2018). Fiscal Effects of School Vouchers: Examining the Savings and Costs of America’s Private School Voucher Programs. Retrieved from EdChoice website: https://www.edchoice.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/09/Fiscal-Effects-of-School-Vouchers-by-Martin-Lueken.pdf

Martin F. Lueken (2018). The Fiscal Effects of Tax-Credit Scholarship Programs in the United States. Journal of School Choice, 12(2), pp. 181–215. https://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15582159.2018.1447725

Julie R. Trivitt and Corey A. DeAngelis (2018). State-Level Fiscal Impact of the Succeed Scholarship Program 2017-2018. Arkansas Education Reports, 15(1), pp. 1–21. Retrieved from http://scholarworks.uark.edu/oepreport/1

Wisconsin Legislative Audit Bureau (2018), Special Needs Scholarship Program: Department of Public Instruction (Report 18-6). Retrieved from https://legis.wisconsin.gov/lab/media/2753/18-6full.pdf

Anthony G. Girardi and Angela Gullickson (2017). Iowa’s School Tuition Organization Tax Credits Program Evaluation Study. Retrieved from Iowa Department of Revenue website: https://tax.iowa.gov/sites/files/idr/2017%20STO%20Tax%20Credit%20Evaluation%20Study%20%281%29.pdf

Corey A. DeAngelis and Julie R. Trivitt (2016). Squeezing the Public School Districts: The Fiscal Effects of Eliminating the Louisiana Scholarship Program (EDRE Working Paper 2016-10). Retrieved from University of Arkansas Department of Education Reform website: http://www.uaedreform.org/downloads/2016/08/squeezing-the-public-school-districts-the-fiscal-effects-of-eliminating-the-louisiana-scholarship-program.pdf

Julie R. Trivitt and Corey A. DeAngelis (2016). The Fiscal Effect of Eliminating the Louisiana Scholarship Program on State Education Expenditures (EDRE Working Paper 2016-06). https://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.2768956

Jeff Spalding (2014). The School Voucher Audit: Do Publicly Funded Private School Choice Programs Save Money? Retrieved from EdChoice website: http://www.edchoice.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/07/The-School-Voucher-Audit-Do-Publicly-Funded-Private-School-Choice-Programs-Save-Money.pdf

Patrick J. Wolf and Michael McShane (2013). Is the Juice Worth the Squeeze? A Benefit/Cost Analysis of the District of Columbia Opportunity Scholarship Program. Education Finance and Policy, 8(1), pp. 74–99. https://dx.doi.org/10.1162/EDFP_a_00083

Office of Economic and Demographic Research (2012). Revenue Estimating Conference, retrieved from http://www.edr.state.fl.us/Content/conferences/revenueimpact/archives/2012/pdf/page540-546.pdf

Robert M. Costrell (2010). The Fiscal Impact of the Milwaukee Parental Choice Program: 2010-2011 Update and Policy Options (SCDP Milwaukee Evaluation Report 22). Retrieved from University of Arkansas Department of Education Reform website: http://www.uaedreform.org/downloads/2011/03/report-22-the-fiscal-impact-of-the-milwaukee-parental-choice-program-2010-2011-update-and-policy-options.pdf

John Merrifield and Nathan L. Gray (2009). An Evaluation of the CEO Horizon, 1998–2008, Edgewood Tuition Voucher Program. Journal of School Choice, 3(4), pp. 414–415. https://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15582150903430764

OPPAGA (2008). The Corporate Tax Credit Scholarship Program Saves State Dollars (Report 08-68). Retrieved from http://www.oppaga.state.fl.us/reports/pdf/0868rpt.pdf

Susan L. Aud (2007). Education by the Numbers: The Fiscal Effect of School Choice Programs, 1990-2006. School Choice Issues in Depth. Retrieved from EdChoice website: http://www.edchoice.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/09/Education-by-the-Numbers-Fiscal-Effect-of-School-Choice-Programs.pdf

Susan L. Aud and Leon Michos (2006). Spreading Freedom and Saving Money: The Fiscal Impact of the D.C. Voucher Program. Retrieved from EdChoice website: http://www.edchoice.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/09/Spreading-Freedom-and-Saving-Money-The-Fiscal-Impact-of-the-DC-Voucher-Program.pdf

 

*A study is a unique set of one or more data analyses, published together, of a single school choice program. “Unique” means using data and analytic specifications not identical to those in previously reported studies. “Published” means reported to the public in any type of publication, paper, article or report. By this definition, all data analyses on a single school choice program that are reported in a single publication are taken together as one “study,” but analyses studying multiple programs are taken as multiple studies even if they are published together.

 

  • Three studies appear within the Howell & Peterson (2002) publication.
  • Egalite (2014), Chakrabarti (2008), Greene and Forster (2002), and Hammons (2002) are publications that contain what we define as two unique studies.

 

Suggested Citation

EdChoice. Empirical Research Literature on the Effects of School Choice [web page]. Last modified April 9, 2019. Retrieved from http://www.edchoice.org/school-choice/empirical-research literature-on-the-effects-of-school-choice

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