In the earlier Education Next analysis, we looked at programs that were introduced in 2010 or later and that were in operation for at least 5 years (27 programs in 19 states).
The data below reflect all programs that were in operation from 1990 to 2021 which consists of 47 programs (5 ESA, 23 voucher, and 19 tax-credit scholarship programs) in the analysis. The ESA programs in the sample are all special needs programs. Prior to its recent expansion, more than half of ESA students in Arizona’s ESA program had special needs. We treat Arizona’s ESA program as a special needs program as the analysis is through 2021.
(Last updated February 2, 2023.)
A common concern of educational choice programs relates to the challenges that district schools face in responding to changes in funding associated with changes in student enrollment. Fortunately, there are numerous resources for school officials to help them manage their budgets. Here are a few:
Student-centered funding, student-based budgeting, backpack funding, … a concept known by many names, it is the idea of directly funding students and families, so every dollar follows each student to the educational setting of their parents’ choosing.
A growing share of public K-12 expenditures is retirement benefits for teachers and other public K-12 workers. These rising costs, stemming from rising unfunded liabilities, are threatening to crowd out resources that could be used more directly for students’ education.