America’s School Choice Programs Ranked by Participation, 2024 Edition

EdChoice tracks every private school choice program and student participation in those programs nationally. In this annual post, we rank all of those programs by participation counts, current at the time of this writing. This reflects the most recent information available, however not every program has released data from the 2023-24 school year.

Though participation is a key factor in analyzing school choice systems, it isn’t the only metric of success. Program design is just as important and impacts students and families who depend on these educational options. Look at the top few programs below, for example: many of these programs offer families tax relief for private school tuition. This type of program often fails to provide immediate financial support to families of all income levels.

We encourage readers to pay attention to the education savings account (ESAs), vouchers, tax-credit ESAs and tax-credit scholarships that rank high in participation because these program types better empower families with the flexibility and funding to meet their children’s individual learning needs. In 2024, ESA participation in particular is on the rise—perhaps a promising sign of the increasing accessibility of school choice.

This list of 70 programs includes every currently active program that has released participation data. While there are 80 private school choice programs across the country, 10 of those programs are new and haven’t reported data from their first year.

Learn more about each school choice program in the 2024 ABCs of School Choice where we provide the most recent participation data and much more. Order your copy today.

1. Illinois Tax Credits for Educational Expenses
Individual Tax Credit | 210,224 tax returns

2. Minnesota Education Deduction
Individual Tax Deduction | 145,623 tax returns

3. Florida Family Empowerment Scholarship for Educational Options
Education Savings Account | 136,087 students

4. Florida Tax Credit Scholarship Program
Tax-Credit Education Savings Account | 125,657 students

5. Iowa Tuition and Textbook Tax Credit
Individual Tax Credit | 110,806 tax returns

6. Florida Family Empowerment Scholarships for Students with Unique Abilities
Education Savings Account | 83,499 students

7. Arizona Empowerment Scholarship Accounts
Education Savings Account | 73,221 students

8. Indiana Choice Scholarship Program
Voucher | 69,270 students

9. Louisiana Elementary and Secondary School Tuition Deduction
Individual Tax Deduction | 64,411 tax returns

10. Indiana Private School/Homeschool Deduction
Individual Tax Deduction | 57,628 tax returns

11. Pennsylvania Educational Improvement Tax Credit Program
Tax-Credit Scholarship | 54,241 students

12. Ohio Educational Choice Scholarship Program
Voucher | 35,981 students

13. Arizona Low-Income Corporate Income Tax Credit Scholarship Program
Tax-Credit Scholarship | 34,337 students

14. Arizona Original Individual Income Tax Credit Scholarship Program
Tax-Credit Scholarship | 33,806 students

15. Ohio Income-Based Scholarship Program
Voucher | 32,535 students

16. Wisconsin K–12 Private School Tuition Deduction
Individual Tax Deduction | 31,560 tax returns

17. Wisconsin Milwaukee Parental Choice Program
Voucher | 29,003 students

18. Arizona “Switcher” Individual Income Tax Credit Scholarship Program
Tax-Credit Scholarship | 28,647 students

19. North Carolina Opportunity Scholarship Program
Voucher | 25,568 students

20. Pennsylvania Opportunity Scholarship Tax Credit Program
Tax-Credit Scholarship | 23,430 students

21. Georgia Qualified Education Expense Tax Credit
Tax-Credit Scholarship | 19,516 students

22. Wisconsin Parental Choice Program (Statewide)
Voucher | 19,205 students

23. Iowa Students First Education Savings Accounts
Education Savings Account | 18,893 students

24. Minnesota K-12 Education Credit
Individual Tax Credit | 18,191 tax returns

25. Iowa School Tuition Organization Tax Credit
Tax-Credit Scholarship | 12,673 students

26. Indiana School Scholarship Tax Credit
Tax-Credit Scholarship | 11,405 students

27. Illinois Invest In Kids Tax-Credit Scholarship
Tax-Credit Scholarship | 9,656 students

28. Ohio Jon Peterson Special Needs Scholarship Program
Voucher | 7,244 students

29. Ohio Cleveland Scholarship Program
Voucher | 6,693 students

30. West Virginia Hope Scholarship Accounts
Education Savings Account | 5,791 students

31. Georgia Special Needs Scholarship Program
Voucher | 5,788 students

32. Louisiana Student Scholarships for Educational Excellence Program
Voucher | 5,541 students

33. Virginia Education Improvement Scholarships Tax Credits Program
Tax-Credit Scholarship | 4,843 students

34. New Hampshire Education Freedom Accounts
Education Savings Account | 4,770 students

35. Maine Town Tuitioning Program
Voucher | 4,701 students

36. Ohio Autism Scholarship Program
Voucher | 4,462 students

37. Wisconsin Parental Private School Choice Program (Racine)
Voucher | 4,038 students

38. Vermont Town Tuitioning Program
Voucher | 3,551 students

39. North Carolina Education Student Accounts (ESA+)
Education Savings Account | 3,377 students

40. Maryland Broadening Options and Opportunities for Students Today (BOOST) Program
Voucher | 3,248 students

41. Alabama Education Scholarship Program
Tax-Credit Scholarship | 2,829 students

42. Wisconsin Special Needs Scholarship Program
Voucher | 2,703 students

43. Louisiana Tuition Donation Credit Program
Tax-Credit Scholarship | 2,444 students

44. Oklahoma Equal Opportunity Education Scholarships
Tax-Credit Scholarship | 2,113 students

45. Tennessee Education Savings Account Pilot Program
Education Savings Account | 1,972 students

46. D.C. Opportunity Scholarship Program
Voucher | 1,707 students

47. Nevada Educational Choice Scholarship Program
Tax-Credit Scholarship | 1,685 students

48. South Dakota Partners in Education Tax Credit Program
Tax-Credit Scholarship | 1,500 students

49. South Carolina Educational Credit for Exceptional Needs Children
Individual Tax Credit | 1,365 tax returns

50. Arizona Lexie’s Law Corporate Tax Credits
Tax-Credit Scholarship | 1,345 students

51. Kansas Low Income Students Scholarship
Tax-Credit Scholarship | 1,340 students

52. Oklahoma Lindsey Nicole Henry (LNH) Scholarship Program for Children with Disabilities
Voucher | 1,256 students

53. New Hampshire Education Tax Credit Program
Tax-Credit Scholarship | 1,228 students

54. Montana Tax Credits for Contributions to Student Scholarship Organizations
Tax-Credit Scholarship | 1,050 students

55. Missouri Empowerment Scholarship Accounts
Tax-Credit Education Savings Account | 970 students

56. Utah Carson Smith Special Needs Scholarship Program
Voucher | 900 students

57. Puerto Rico Free School Selection Program
Voucher | 878 students

58. Arkansas Succeed Scholarship Program for Students with Disabilities
Voucher | 795 students

59. South Carolina Refundable Educational Credit for Exceptional Needs Children
Individual Tax Credit | 564 tax returns

60. Florida Hope Scholarship Program
Tax-Credit Scholarship | 538 students

61. Rhode Island Tax Credits for Contributions to Scholarship Organizations
Tax-Credit Scholarship | 470 students

62. Louisiana School Choice Program for Certain Students with Exceptionalities
Voucher | 428 students

63. Indiana Education Scholarship Account Program
Education Savings Account | 412 students

64. Mississippi Equal Opportunity for Students with Special Needs Program
Education Savings Account | 381 students

65. Utah Special Needs Opportunity Scholarship Program
Tax-Credit Scholarship | 345 students

66. Tennessee Individualized Education Accounts
Education Savings Account | 338 students

67. Mississippi Dyslexia Therapy Scholarship for Students with Dyslexia Program
Voucher | 237 students

68. Alabama Accountability Act of 2013 Parent-Taxpayer Refundable Tax Credits
Individual Tax Credit | 44 tax returns

69. New Hampshire Town Tuitioning Program
Voucher | 17 students

70. Mississippi Nate Rogers Scholarship for Students with Disabilities Program
Voucher | 10 students