Some policymakers in the Sunflower State have expressed concern about the potential fiscal impact of a new educational choice program. Our fiscal expert looks at the data from existing Kansas programs to learn more.
We’re joined by Trish Wilger, executive director of Iowa Alliance for Choice in Education (ACE), to discuss results from the Iowa K-12 & School Choice Survey.
Max Eden, senior fellow at the Manhattan Institute, hops on the podcast to talk about the history of the Hope Scholarship, school choice in Florida and more.
In this episode, we share key takeaways from our January 2021 wave of polling as reported on our EdChoice Public Opinion Tracker. For more from the full report, visit
The state's 15-year-old School Tuition Organization Tax Credit helped 12,538 students enroll in private schools of choice during the 2019–20 school year. And recent polling shows Iowans want to see programs like it grow to serve more families.
Justice Clint Bolick of the Arizona Supreme Court and Kate Hardiman, Rehnquist Fellow at Cooper & Kirk, join us to discuss their latest book, Unshackled: Freeing America’s K–12 Education
As we do every year, the EdChoice team got together to vote on yearbook superlative categories, such as Most Empowering, Biggest Setback and our newest recognition, Most Choice-y State,
Where are America’s students getting their education? Which types of schools and educational settings are they choosing?
We rank the nation’s educational choice programs by purchasing power based on data in our 2021 edition of The ABCs of School Choice.
In this episode, we share key takeaways from our December 2020 wave of polling as reported on our EdChoice Public Opinion Tracker. For more from the full report, visit
Unlike previous years of our Schooling in America survey project, our researchers released multiple sets of results in a chart-focused format. This report focuses on the second wave of
Student stress and happiness levels were among the items parents saw changing from spring to fall, while support for all school choice policies grew to record levels.
Dan Lips, visiting fellow with the Foundation for Research on Equal Opportunity, joins us to talk about his recent paper, “Reducing Inequality in Outside-of-School Learning.”
In this episode, we share key takeaways from our November 2020 wave of polling as reported on our EdChoice Public Opinion Tracker. For more from the full report, visit
In his latest report, Paul Peterson breaks down what the evidence says about the effectiveness of school choice. He also outlines a variety of action items policymakers can take to
Kevin Vallier, associate professor of philosophy at Bowling Green State University, joins us to discuss his chapter in the book, Religious Liberty and Education: A Case Study of Yeshivas
In this episode, we share key takeaways from our October 2020 wave of polling as reported on our EdChoice Public Opinion Tracker. For more from the full report, visit
Jonathan Butcher joins us to discuss is report, Protecting Learning Pods: A 50-State Guide to Regulations Threatening the Latest Education Innovation. He explains learning pod regulation concerns and more.
Danish Shakeel discusses his co-authored report, Changes in the Performance of Students in Charter and District Sectors of U.S. Education: An Analysis of Nationwide Trends.
Lindsey Burke joins us to discuss An Appraisal Market for K-12 Education, her recently-authored report for the American Enterprise Institute.
We are joined by Ian Kingsbury, an education policy fellow with the Empire Center for Public Policy. He discusses his recently-authored EdChoice study, Online Learning: How do Brick and
In this special edition of our Religious Liberty and Education series, we are joined by Jibran Khan and Danish Shakeel to discuss Islamic education and homeschooling—specifically in regards to
When legal and educational systems fail to recognize the humanity of those they sentence, such callousness leaves the most fragile the most vulnerable and in harm’s way.
Co-editors of the book, School Choice Myths: Setting the Record Straight on Educational Freedom, unpack just a few of the 12 school choice myths you will find in the book.
Matthew Ladner joins Jason Bedrick in this episode of our Big Ideas series to discuss their co-authored report, Let’s Get Small: Microschools, Pandemic Pods, and the Future of Education
In this episode, we share key takeaways from our August 2020 wave of polling as reported on our EdChoice Public Opinion Tracker. We talk about the new questions we
In this episode, we chat with Tim DeRoche about his book, A Fine Line: How Most American Kids are Kept Out of the Best Public Schools. We cover topics
In this episode, we chat about results in part two of our Schooling in America Survey, “K–12 Education and School Choice Reforms.” We unpack the American public’s views on the
Learn what parents, the public and people of different races and ethnicities think about K–12 education issues, including school choice, funding and more.
How did Americans of different incomes, political affiliations and communities—urban, suburban and small town/rural—respond to our Schooling in America Survey?
In this episode, we chat about results in part two of our Schooling in America Survey, “Homeschooling Experiences and Opinions During the COVID-19 Pandemic.” We unpack why parents choose
The authors of our latest blog series, “The Unbundling Series,” discuss creating a more resilient education system and more. Read the first of six posts here.
In this episode, we share key takeaways from last month’s EdChoice Public Opinion Tracker polling waves, including increased favorability of homeschooling and more.
In this edition of The Unbundling Series, we tackle what it might look like to 'unbundle' core academic elements of schools.
In this edition of The Unbundling Series, we tackle what it means to 'unbundle' educational services and providers to create a more resilient system of education.
Authors of our latest report, Schooling in America: COVID-19 & K–12 Education, discuss some of the findings that stood out the most. To read the first report in this
The pandemic drastically altered students’ learning environments while affecting parents’ views on remote learning and reopening, but experiences differed by racial/ethnic backgrounds.
The authors of the brief, Pennsylvania K-12 School Choice Survey, discuss the findings—including voters’ views on school choice program types and more.
Patrick Wolf, professor and 21st Century chair in School Choice in the Department of Education Reform at the University of Arkansas, joins us to discuss a book he edited.
In this episode of the Big Ideas series, we chat with Lindsey Burke of the Center for Education Policy about the book, The Not-So-Great-Society. The book, co-edited by Burke,
The current economic downturn will have rippling effects on the health of pension funds for public school teachers and other public employees.
In partnership with Morning Consult, we surveyed American K–12 school parents about how COVID-19, which we also refer to as “coronavirus,” has affected their lives and their children’s education.
What would happen to state and local budgets if a percentage of private school students wind up back in the public system?
A few authors of our annual report, The 123s of School Choice, discuss what you’ll find in this year’s edition. Click here to download the full report, or order
Students can use the GI Bill and Pell Grants Program—school voucher programs for adults—at both public and private institutions. But to what extent does that actually happen?
In this episode of EdChoice Chats, Mike McShane and Michael Shaw, authors of our latest report Transporting School Choice Students, discuss inspiration, methodology and findings. Click here to read
Phil Magness, senior research fellow with the American Institute of Economic Research, discusses the history of school choice and critics’ claims of segregationist roots. Magness delves into this and
Brian Kisida, assistant professor at the University of Missouri, discusses his co-authored report, When is a School Segregated? Making Sense of Segregation 65 Years After Brown v. Board of
We rank the nation’s educational choice programs by purchasing power based on data in our 2020 edition of The ABCs of School Choice.
Daarel Burnette of Education Week wrote a provocative piece earlier this month titled “Face It, School Governance Is a Mess.” His core argument is tough to dispute: No one knows who is in charge of K–12 education.
Our VP of External Relations Brian McGrath, Director of Fiscal Policy and Analysis Marty Lueken and EdChoice Fellow James Shuls discuss big takeaways from this year’s Walton Finance Symposium.
What do parents of school-age kids and public school teachers have in common? How are their views on education different. This 2019 national poll has some answers.
Which studies are the most reliable? The best way to get an apples-to-apples comparison in social science is to perform something called a randomized control trial (RCT). Here's how they work.
A staffing surge has been happening in public schools for decades, and it's hurting teachers. Watch author Dr. Ben Scafidi break down what the US DOE data say about it.
EdNext survey reveals what parents, teachers, Democrats and Republicans know about schooling in America—and what they want to change
Founder of Kingdom Prep Lutheran High School talks leading a faith-based institution made up of predominately non-Lutheran students
Charters, magnets and career and technical education schools aren’t the only non-traditional options for American Indian and Alaska Native students
EdChoice's Drew Catt talks with Garrett Ballengee, Cardinal Institute's executive director, about lack of school choice options in West Virginia
Our VP of legal affairs and two members of our research team recap their time at the annual International School Choice and Reform Conference
Our team has never been shy about our focus on broad eligibility in school choice programs, but a program that’s open to all families is only as good as
Which of America’s school choice programs has the most students participating? What about the least? In this post, we rank America’s school choice programs by how many participants they
At EdChoice, eligibility is one of the most important factors in analyzing a school choice program. We believe that all parents—regardless of geography, income or any other factor—should have
This is the third in a larger blog series about liberating education through educational freedom. In his 1958 book Freedom of Choice in Education, Father Virgil Blum stated,
This is the second in a larger blog series about liberating education through educational freedom. There is a strange notion going around that school choice advocates are on
Two researchers boil down 700+ pages of focus group discussions into this revealing report on K–12 accountability in America
Last month, the Tennessee Department of Education released the final expense report summary and enrollment data for the first full year of the state’s education savings account (ESA) program
An IRS response to high-tax states may affect all charities, including tax-credit scholarships. What’s next?
The authors of Indiana’s Schooling Deserts used Geographic Information System software to map Hoosier families’ drive times to traditional public, magnet, charter and voucher-participating private schools. That first-of-its-kind mapping
Indiana is ripe with school choice, but families in some areas lack access to highly rated schools or alternatives to their zoned public schools
Education policy wonks are atwitter over what a recent University of Virginia (UVA) press release said about school choice, but should they be?
Our latest brief, which compiles the results of a survey of New Hampshire Private Schools, had some results that surprised even EdChoice Director of Policy and former New Hampshire legislator Jason Bedrick. Listen to the team’s discussion of the results here.
LA Unified School District, one of the largest in the nation, has some serious money troubles. Listen to this EdChoice Chat to find out how school choice could be part of the solution for LA Unified and school districts across the nation.
We talk with Friedman Fellow Dr. Greg Forster, a long-time school choice researcher and advocate, about his motivation for joining the movement, upcoming research and more.
It’s not all bad news, and there are important reasons why D.C.’s voucher results can’t be generalized to all school choice programs
We see a new article on “accountability” in education every day, but now, this author offers a plan that would free our public schools of excessive red tape and saves other learning providers from it
A new study uses the latest student performance and segregation data to compare Chile’s school voucher system to other traditional Latin American education systems over time.
This post is part of a new EdChoice blog series called The Next 200 Years, where authors will wrestle with how to best preserve the legacy and ensure the future of Catholic education in the United States.
A new working paper examines all voucher studies, charter studies and more to assess whether short-run test score results translate to the long term for kids.
Shaunette Parker, a South Carolina parent advocate, joins us to talk about new private school survey data and how it informs the local education landscape.
Check out these maps showing outgoing, incoming and net public district school choice transfers and where the state’s public transfer hot spots are.
In this podcast, we discuss new research on how Florida families are using the state’s ESA program and more with the report’s authors.
In today’s EdChoice Chat, Director of State Research and Policy Analysis Drew Catt talks with Jonathan Mills, senior research associate in the University of Arkansas’s Department of Education. Jon
Frederick Andersson, Christian Buerger and Mike Ford talk about their current research, tips for school choice researchers and more.
We interview Dr. Bartley Danielsen about his ideas on school choice’s potential effects on poverty, pollution, urban blight and gentrification.
This post is the last in a three-part series exploring what the research tells us about poverty, urban blight, pollution and gentrification as it relates to school choice policies.
This post is the second in a three-part series exploring what the research tells us about poverty, urban blight, pollution and gentrification as it relates to school choice policies.
This post is the first in a three-part series exploring what the research tells us about poverty, urban blight, pollution and gentrification as it relates to school choice policies.
Check out this simple guide to empirical evidence and how to identify high-quality research from poor-quality research, using examples from the auto and education industries.
Check out this example of Mississippi to learn how these maps work and where the state’s private school hot spots—and deserts—are located.
A handful of organizations released high-quality surveys of Americans on education issues in 2017, and here’s what they found in a nutshell.
Get the key findings from EdChoice’s annual survey of Americans on education issues and more, with a special focus on small town and rural families as well as new questions about the role of the federal government.
We shouldn’t give parents choices because they don’t have enough information to make good decisions, but they don’t have enough information because we haven’t given them choices. So what do we do?
Military families sacrifice at a higher rate for their kids’ educations, have already tried alternatives to district schooling and have views on school choice policies that show they want more flexibility in K–12 education.
Sivan Tuchman joins us to discuss her latest research, what policymakers should know and what school choice advocates should do to properly serve families of students with special needs.
Authors of our newest research report, Why Indiana Parents Choose, Drew Catt and Dr. Evan Rhinesmith hop in the studio to discuss the responses of Indiana school parents from
Find out why policymakers should understand what the data say about the power of parents’ school choices before condemning this alternative accountability mechanisms.
Opponents of educational choice worry that empowering parents and students to attend private schools will lead to a Wild West of schools wrought with teachers who lack “certification,” a
Tulane University Professor Douglas N. Harris gets the research wrong in his response to a Wall Street Journal editorial praising school choice. The Journal referenced the fourth edition of
This post is your one-stop shop for resources breaking down new research—“Back to the Staffing Surge: The Great Teacher Salary Stagnation and the Decades-Long Employment Growth in American Public Schools.”
This new study finds some negative results for voucher students in their first year in the program, but there’s much more to learn.
“There is no conclusive evidence that the [DC Opportunity Scholarship Program (OSP)] affected student achievement.” This one statement, taken from a 214-page government report for which one of us
This post originally appeared on Jay P. Greene’s Blog. The confirmation of Betsy DeVos as the nation’s Secretary of Education is shining a national spotlight on educational choice. It
Why looking at quantitative and qualitative evidence could change The Anti-Defamation League’s position on school choice
Note: This post was originally published on Education Next. The Century Foundation has published a report by Halley Potter that claims private school choice will increase ethnic segregation in schools.
Urban economic development resources are often focused on bringing jobs and affordable housing to downtown areas. In contrast, there has been very little consideration given to how public charter
A new University of Arkansas study finds a link between a country’s share of private school students and the nation’s overall academic proficiency and human rights.
I wish I had a nickel for each time I’ve read or heard something about how school choice siphons resources from public schools or how it will cripple a
Not only will the proposed Arkansas ESA help match more children with the right learning environment, but recent studies show the program is also a sound fiscal move for the state.
In my continual quest to provide the most comprehensive data possible, I have revamped how we look at the educational choice share, or EdChoice share. This year, the EdChoice
Milwaukee, Wisconsin has a 25-year-old school voucher program (MPCP) restricted to low-income students, district-run chartered public schools and some privately funded vouchers. Because the MPCP is the oldest publicly
New research estimates how much the city’s school choice program could save Wisconsin over the next two decades through lower crime rates and higher graduation rates.
A Clark County voter poll commissioned by Nevada’s Clark County Education Association (CCEA), a local teachers’ union, and conducted by Quirk Global Strategies made the rounds in the news over
Give the American K–12 education system another participation ribbon, this time for its latest results on the Program for International Student Assessment (PISA), a global measurement taken every
Listen as EdChoice Director of State Research and Policy Analysis Drew Catt discusses a new research report concluding that school choice programs across America have not delivered increases in
In 2014, we calculated the cumulative savings generated by America’s K–12 school voucher programs over two decades—$1.7 billion. This year, we continued that study by doing the same for
Some may not admit it, but many of us cringe when a conversation turns to numbers and math. Well, we’re taking it there with this post. Feel free to
In our Surveying State Legislators report, we share findings from a phone survey of state legislators from across the country. It’s worth noting that we believe this is the
In two previous posts, I discussed the fiscal impact of Nevada’s education savings account (ESA) program and how it could help the state with its problem of rising pension
Arkansas is on its way to becoming a natural, actual, real, authentical educational choice lovin’ state. Just like Johnny Cash’s song character Joe Bean, I’ve never been to Arkansas.
A recent study led by Northwestern economist David Figlio on Ohio’s Educational Choice Scholarship Program is a case of good news and bad news. To be sure, it provides
The debate about school choice is often animated in the United States, but critics of the idea may be surprised to learn that school voucher programs are quite common
To maintain and grow enrollment, school leaders need to know whether parents are satisfied with the education their children are receiving and the learning environment in which it takes
School choice opponents have no shortage of unfounded arguments aimed at blocking parents from choosing the best educational fit for their own kids. One of their favorite talking points
As educational choice grows, so does the evidence proving it works. In today’s release of the fourth edition of a Friedman Foundation flagship report—A Win-Win Solution: The Empirical Evidence
This is the second in a two-part series on Nevada’s fiscal climate and educational choice. In the first part of our series, we examined the fiscal effect of Nevada’s
If you have ever seen a sentence on the Friedman Foundation website along the lines of “You Might Be Eligible For [a specific education savings account program],” or “You
It’s time to stop treating the problem of educational productivity as a grinding, eat-your-broccoli exercise. It’s time to start treating it as an opportunity for innovation and accelerating progress.
Growing up, the only things I knew about Nebraska were Cornhusker football and Tom Osborne (which are synonymous in most people’s minds). When I was older, I bought a
This is the first in a two-part series on Nevada’s fiscal climate and educational choice. A common critique often put forth by school choice opponents is that these
A common critique often put forth by school choice opponents is that such programs will divert students from districts, therefore “siphoning” resources from public schools. Opponents of the proposed Oklahoma education
Kasey Locke’s preschool teachers in Arizona tried to help her focus and stay on task at school. But as Kasey entered kindergarten, her parents, Jeff and Rebecca, wanted to
We are introducing a new calculation to our school choice program rankings this year: educational choice share, or “edchoice share.” The calculations behind this ranking seek to answer one
We’ve given our readers an overview of school choice programs across the nation this week with rankings based on eligibility and family participation. But one major question still remains: How
Which of America’s school choice programs has the most participants? Which has the least? The latest edition of The ABCs of School Choice gives the most up-to-date information we
At the Friedman Foundation, our goal for any school choice program is universal eligibility. We believe that all parents—regardless of ZIP Code, income, or any other factors—should have access
Education has been at the forefront for Indiana citizens and lawmakers ever since the second term of former Gov. Mitch Daniels’ administration. Indiana legislators have given various education issues
Since the launch of the nation’s first modern school choice program in 1990, nationwide participation in school choice has grown leaps and bounds—by 115,301 percent! Today, there are 59
In spring of this year, the Colorado Supreme Court issued its opinion on the Douglas County school voucher program. Since then, proponents of the program have made headway in
My colleagues and I came across private school management organizations (PSMOs) in the course of our research for a Friedman Foundation for Educational Choice report, “The Chartered Course,” in
The Friedman Foundation for Educational Choice team is proud to announce that our foundation became a charter member of the American Association for Public Opinion Research’s (AAPOR) Transparency Initiative
About one in four children in the U.S. today is Hispanic, and Latino children are one of the fastest growing demographics in the country, according to recent reports. As
Six decades after the landmark decision of Brown v. Board of Education, many students still attend schools that are segregated by race or class. And this isn’t just a
Hiking, snowshoeing, skiing, camping, rock climbing, mountain biking, fishing, rafting, snowboarding, spelunking—Colorado is at the top when it comes to choices for outdoor adventures. In the last few years,
As the rollout of Nevada’s nearly-universal education savings accounts (ESAs) continues, parents have plenty of questions. We saw some great ones in response to this July article detailing the
Wisconsin has a long and rich history of school choice, with tens of thousands of families having availed themselves of the opportunities to choose by enrolling their children in
As recent polling data indicates, a significant majority of people believe that allowing parents to take the taxpayer funds dedicated for the education of their children to choose the
As media coverage of Nevada’s new education savings account (ESA) program booms, so do online comments—both in support of and against the innovative new school choice program. A recent
The creation of Nevada’s first school choice programs could be considered the “tipping point” for the private school choice movement. With legislators creating both the Educational Choice Scholarship Program
With the close of another school year and a blossoming of expansive school choice programs this year comes curiosity about the progress of K–12 education in the United States.
Indiana is a national leader in school choice. Hoosier policymakers deserve credit for adopting innovative policies that help families enroll their children in the schools that work best for
In 2030, the population of people dependent upon our most expensive tax-funded services—education and senior healthcare—likely will be the highest it’s ever been in American history. Those increases in
The Center for Tax and Budget Accountability (CTBA) released a report last week on the impact of Indiana’s school choice programs, specifically its school voucher program. To date, the
Minnesota voters like public schools and private school choice policies. Minnesota has a long history of bucking conventional thinking about K–12 education. Most important, the state is known for
Determining if a policy actually causes some impact on people’s lives is an incredibly difficult task. Humans are complex creatures, and the world that we live in has lots
At the start of the year, an internal “poll” among staff at the Friedman Foundation named Nevada the state most likely to succeed in creating its first school choice
Indiana’s statewide school choice program is either incredibly controversial or wildly popular, depending on with whom one speaks. To the former, vouchers only help the rich. And sometimes with the
We’ve helped our readers see how many families are eligible for school choice programs across the country and those who actually participate. Until now, the question still remained: Which
Universal eligibility—that is, open to every single family—is the Friedman Foundation’s school choice policy goal. To coincide with the 2015 release of The ABCs of School Choice, we’ve ranked
School choice skeptics often raise concerns about the students who are “left behind” in traditional public schools when statewide school vouchers are enacted. What will become of those kids
Indiana could be considered the “pace car” in the private school choice race among states. But as any racing fan will know, not all tracks are the same, which
If Delaware Gov. Jack Markell wants to entrust parents to “make the right educational choices for their children,” his state’s voters are unlikely to stand in the way. In
Idaho’s nickname, the Gem State, proves it has a rich history rooted in discovery and diversity. The same could be said for its future, especially if Idahoans were to
The birthplace of our nation is also one of the key cities that became a wellspring for modern-day school choice programs. Unfortunately, Philadelphia freedom is unnecessarily at risk. In
Students transferring to private schools using publicly funded vouchers saved participating states more than $1.7 billion over a 20-year period. Here’s how: From 1990 to 2011, students in six
Editor’s note: Some of the author’s sources link to studies that appear in Swedish. Debate over “The Girl with the Dragon Tattoo” and which film is better—America’s version or Sweden’s—comes
The Chartered Course by Andy Smarick continues an important discussion focused on growing and developing the private school market in America. It is a welcome shift from the “save
Is there a “tidal wave” coming for private school choice, as some have suggested? No doubt since the Wall Street Journal declared 2011 “The Year of School Choice,” policymakers’
This week, we released our 2014 Schooling in America Survey. In it, we asked a representative sample of American adults, not just voters, their views on issues such as
“Regulators, mount up!” That line from a popular western film, used later in a famous hip-hop song, is not generally thought of as one directed toward private schools. Indeed,
“…[I]t may surprise you to learn that in a growing number of states, legislators are setting aside public money to pay for private school tuition – and rich people
A recent Huffington Post article took the Milwaukee Parental Choice Program (MPCP) to task for how some MPCP students with special needs are being treated in their schools. First,
In 1979, there were 9,640 Catholic schools in the United States. By 2011, there were 6,841. That decline has been caused by a number of factors, each of which
…consider the alternative! President Obama has yet again omitted funding for the D.C. Opportunity Scholarship Program in his recently proposed 2015 education budget. Although his reasoning is likely more philosophical
Earlier this week, the Miami Herald editorialized against the proposed expansion of the highly popular Florida Tax Credit Scholarship Program. The law allows businesses to receive tax credits for contributing
The Indiana Department of Education (IDOE) reported that 39.3 percent of voucher recipients (7,779 students) were never previously enrolled in public schools in Indiana, implying that these vouchers are an
An ambitious school choice proposal is on the table in Oklahoma. Last week, state legislators introduced a bill to create an education savings account system (ESA) for low- and
Centralization in public schools through school district consolidation was pitched as a way to save administrative costs in American public schools. Instead, public school administration has mirrored the trend
Milton Friedman said if the traditional public schools are as good as its defenders claim, they shouldn’t be afraid of competition. In a similar vein, some school choice supporters
Despite the message of those adorable AT&T commercials that “more is better,” there is evidence to the contrary regarding money for public schools. In a little-discussed report, issued by the
Yesterday education historian Diane Ravitch recognized the Friedman Foundation’s research on her blog, specifically our new survey showing where Americans rank the efficaciousness of seven education reforms. However, I
A new Friedman Foundation report released today found what education reforms were most popular, in terms of their perceived effectiveness, among surveyed adults. The graphic below shows where Americans
In a new Friedman Foundation report, I used survey data from the Cooperative Congressional Election Study (CCES) to examine several specific questions about public opinion and support for school
Historically, American public school districts have been governed by locally appointed or elected school boards, and families (mostly) have been free to live in whatever school district they wished.
In “Spinning America’s Report Card,” Paul E. Peterson and Eric A. Hanushek wrote “…progress for American children came to a halt when the Obama administration stopped focusing on student
Rhode Island is a blue state when it comes to legislative politics. A very, very blue state. In presidential elections since 1928, Rhode Island has voted Republican just four
American education would be far better off if, instead of asking that question, more school leaders asked “What’s so wrong with my school that makes parents want to leave?”