Ohio - Cleveland Scholarship Program

school choice

Ohio – Cleveland Scholarship Program

Ohio – Cleveland Scholarship Program

Ohio’s Cleveland Scholarship Program was enacted in 1995 and launched in 1996. Through this program, students who reside in the Cleveland Metropolitan School District can receive vouchers to attend neighboring public schools or private schools. Learn more about the program’s eligibility, funding, requirements, regulations, and more on this page.

Program Fast Facts

  • Declared constitutional by the U.S. Supreme Court in 2002

  • 7,438 participating students (2018–19)

  • 100 percent of students eligible districtwide

  • 41 participating schools (2018–19)

  • Average voucher value: $4,863 (2017–18)

  • Value as a percentage of public school per-student spending: 41 percent

Program Details

Ohio’s Cleveland Scholarship Program Participation

Students Participating
School Year Ending

Click the + symbols to learn more about this program’s details.

Parents in the Cleveland Metropolitan School District can receive vouchers to send their children to private school or public schools bordering the school district. No more than half of new recipients may be students previously enrolled in private schools.

Student Funding

The maximum voucher value is $4,650 for grades K–8 and $6,000 for high school. K–8 recipients with a household income no greater than twice the federal poverty level are allowed to use the voucher amount as full tuition payment. Parents whose household income is more than the 200 percent threshold may pay the remaining tuition or provide in-kind services of the remaining tuition. Ohio’s state budget includes $23.5 million in deductions from the Cleveland Metropolitan School District for the program in 2019–20.

Student Eligibility

Children in grades K–12 who reside in the Cleveland Metropolitan School District are eligible. Priority is given to families with incomes less than 200 percent of the federal poverty level ($51,500 for a family of four in 2019–20). Children from families with incomes above 200 percent of poverty are eligible to receive vouchers if approved by the Ohio Superintendent of Public Instruction. Participating private schools must accept voucher students on a random basis, giving preference to low-income students if they have more applicants than open seats.

EdChoice Expert Feedback

Cleveland’s voucher program, one of the oldest in the country, could use some updating. Funding for the program is severely restricted, well below what the district schools spend per pupil. Voucher amounts should be closer to what the district school system spends per student ($16,313) and at least should be closer to what the district schools receive in state-only aid ($9,353). Such funding increases would greatly benefit the poorest families. Private school regulations are burdensome, which can lower the number of private schools willing to participate. Mandatory minimum class size requirements, and at the K–3 level, enrollment based on random lottery, income level and previous enrollment are examples of the heavier-handed regulations with which many private schools take issue. A bright spot for the program is that parents above the income threshold are able to participate, albeit at a reduced funding level.

Rules and Regulations

  • Income Limit: None (Priority given to families up to 200% x Poverty)
  • Prior Year Public School Requirement: None
  • Geographic Limit: District (Cleveland Metropolitan)
  • Enrollment Cap: None
  • Voucher Cap: $4,650 (K–8) / $6,000 (9–12)
  • Testing Mandates: National

School Requirements:

  • Be registered to participate and chartered by the state
  • Meet state standards for chartered nonpublic schools
  • Comply with state laws regarding nondiscrimination and health and safety codes
  • Schools with scholarship students comprising 65 percent or more of enrollment must administer the state test

Legal History

On June 27, 2002, the U.S. Supreme Court ruled that the Cleveland school voucher program does not violate the First Amendment of the U.S. Constitution; that vouchers are constitutional when parents have independent, private choice of schools without favoring or disfavoring religion. By design, the voucher program is “school neutral.” Zelman v. Simmons-Harris, 536 U.S. 639 (2002) 


The Ohio Supreme Court had previously struck down the Cleveland voucher program, Simmons-Harris v. Goff, 711 N.E.2d 203 (Ohio 1999), ruling it was unconstitutional because the legislation adopting the voucher program violated the single subject rule. However, the court also held that the voucher program did not violate the state constitution’s compelled support or education clauses and did not violate the Federal constitution’s Establishment Clause.  

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