North Carolina - Opportunity Scholarships

school choice

North Carolina – Opportunity Scholarships

North Carolina – Opportunity Scholarships

North Carolina’s Opportunity Scholarships program was enacted in 2013 and launched in 2014. It provides private school vouchers to children of low-income households. Families can use these school vouchers to pay for tuition, transportation, equipment and other necessary private school expenses. Learn more about this program’s eligibility requirements, rules and regulations on this page.

Program Fast Facts

  • 12,183 participating students (Fall 2019)

  • 44 percent of families with children income-eligible statewide

  • 451 participating schools (Fall 2019)

  • Average voucher value: $3,936 (2018–19)

  • Value as a percentage of public school per-student spending: 43 percent

Program Details

North Carolina’s Opportunity Scholarship Program Participation

Students Participating
School Year

Click the + symbols to learn more about this program’s details.

North Carolina awards vouchers statewide to students whose families meet certain income requirements.

Student Funding

The maximum voucher amount allowed is $4,200, not to exceed the private school’s actual tuition and fees. This maximum amount is reserved for students from families earning at or below the federal free and reduced-price lunch (FRL) program ($47,648 in 2019–20). Families earning above this threshold up to 133 percent of FRL ($63,358 for a family of four in 2019–20) may qualify for vouchers worth up to 90 percent of tuition. The vouchers may be used for tuition, transportation, equipment or any other items required by qualifying private schools. Total funding increased to $64.8 million for 2019–20.

Student Eligibility

Students are eligible to receive vouchers if their household income does not exceed 133 percent of FRL ($63,358 for a family of four in 2019–20). Students must also have attended a public school during the previous semester. Kindergartners, first graders, foster children, dependents of full-time active military members and children that have been adopted in the past year qualify for vouchers without having to attend a public school.

EdChoice Expert Feedback

Like many other voucher programs around the nation, North Carolina’s income-based program could improve per-student funding and eligibility. The scholarship cap of $4,200 per student per year is significant, yet could be improved to more closely align with funding levels the child would have received to attend a public school. Private schools that decide to accept Opportunity Scholarship students face regulations as well, including a requirement to report nationally standardized test performance to the government if they enroll 25 or more scholarship students. It is good that North Carolina allows private schools to choose among nationally norm-referenced tests; however, the state should remove the government reporting requirement and instead require results be reported to parents to maximize administrative flexibility for private schools.

Rules and Regulations

  • Income Limit: 133 percent x FRL
  • Prior Year Public School Requirement: Conditional
  • Geographic Limit: Statewide
  • Enrollment Cap: None
  • Budget Cap: $64.8 million (2019–20)
  • Voucher Cap: $4,200
  • Testing Mandates: National


School Requirements:

  • Not discriminate with respect to the categories listed in 42 U.S.C. § 2000d, as that statute read on January 1, 2014
  • Comply with health and safety requirements
  • Be accredited by the state board of education, a national or regional accrediting agency or an active member of the North Carolina Association of Independent Schools, or receive no funding from state government
  • Provide the state with documentation for tuition and fees charged
  • Conduct criminal background check on staff member with highest decision-making authority
  • Provide parents with an annual written explanation of the student’s progress, including scores on standardized achievement tests
  • Annually administer a nationally standardized test to voucher students and provide the test results to the state
  • Provide graduation rates of voucher students to the state
  • Contract with a certified public accountant to perform a financial review for schools that accept students who receive more than $300,000 in voucher grants

Governing Statutes

N.C. Rev. Stat. §§ 115C-562.1 through 562.8

Legal History

On July 23, 2015, the North Carolina Supreme Court upheld all aspects of the state’s voucher for children of low-income households, the Opportunity Scholarship Program, as constitutional. The lower court decision in Hart v State, No. 13 CVS 16771 (August 28, 2014), was overturned. Hart v. State774 S.E.2d 281 (N.C. 2015); Richardson v. State, 774 S.E.2d 304 (2015) 

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